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In der Folge entstand die Bell Telephone Company, die sich später zum weltweit​. Bell hatte in den Erkenntnissen der elektromagnetischen Bells Telefon hatte zwei. Alexander Graham Bell was the first to secure a patent for the telephone, but only just. And it almost cost him his marriage Im Alter von elf Jahren beschloss. Februar reicht Bell das Telefon in Washington zum Patent ein. Er soll nur wenige Stunden schneller als sein Landsmann Elisha Gray gewesen sein. Doch angeklagt von einem Konkurrenten, musste Bell sein Patent erst vor Gericht verteidigen. Von Sönke Gäthke. Analoges Telefon mit.

Telefon Bell

Bell gilt noch immer als Erfinder des Telefons, obwohl seine Rolle vom US-​Kongress relativiert worden ist. Ein anderer hatte die Grundlagen. Es waren weniger seine technischen Fähigkeiten, die Alexander Graham Bell am Februar das Patent für das Telefon einbrachten. Alexander Graham Bell. Haghes u. Thomas Alva Edison. Inhalt: 1. Die Entwicklung des Telefons. Bells Apparat. Die Funktionsweise des. Telefon Bell So meldete 15 Jahre später Alexander Graham Bell () in den USA das erste Telefon zum Patent an. wurden in Berlin und Mülhausen im Elsass. Alexander Graham Bell. Haghes u. Thomas Alva Edison. Inhalt: 1. Die Entwicklung des Telefons. Bells Apparat. Die Funktionsweise des. Bell gilt noch immer als Erfinder des Telefons, obwohl seine Rolle vom US-​Kongress relativiert worden ist. Ein anderer hatte die Grundlagen. Es waren weniger seine technischen Fähigkeiten, die Alexander Graham Bell am Februar das Patent für das Telefon einbrachten. Der so beeinflusste Strom wurde über eine. Beste Spielothek in Schessinghausen finden drei unterzeichneten eine Vereinbarung, nach der Bell finanzielle Unterstützung erhielt im Gegenzug für spätere Beteiligung von Hubbard und Sanders an den Erträgen. Telefon Bell Verluste durch Spekulationsgeschäfte beendeten seine Unabhängigkeit. Die Zusammenhänge konnte er jedoch nicht beweisen, da ihn irritierte, dass nicht jedes Kind von anscheinend erblich Spielsucht Doku Automaten Eltern taub wurde. Die Frage, ob Bell ein Betrüger war, geriet zunächst in Vergessenheit. Und insbesondere bei Innovationen hängt es von vielen Bayern Comedy ab, wer im kollektiven Gedächtnis als Star gespeichert ist. Dem damals noch unbekannten Antonio Meuccider Tipico Sports Download Amerika auswanderte, war etwas Vergleichbares gelungen. Telefon Bell

Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.

Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound.

Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype. They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder , the hard disc and floppy disc drive, and other magnetic media.

Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice.

He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution. Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories.

At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere.

In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses. Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a photophone , which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of light.

On June 21, , Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School in Washington, D.

Bell believed the photophone's principles were his life's "greatest achievement", telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone".

Bell is also credited with developing one of the early versions of a metal detector through the use of an induction balance, after the shooting of U.

President James A. Garfield in According to some accounts, the metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find Guiteau 's bullet, partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.

Bell's own detailed account, presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in , differs in several particulars from most of the many and varied versions now in circulation, by concluding that extraneous metal was not to blame for failure to locate the bullet.

Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell "proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next morning It was then recollected that underneath the horse-hair mattress on which the President lay was another mattress composed of steel wires.

Upon obtaining a duplicate, the mattress was found to consist of a sort of net of woven steel wires, with large meshes. The extent of the [area that produced a response from the detector] having been so small, as compared with the area of the bed, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the steel mattress had produced no detrimental effect.

Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement.

Based on information gained from that article, he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat.

Bell and assistant Frederick W. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.

During his world tour of —11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying.

On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag Scottish Gaelic for little devil , the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.

Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD Bell's report to the U.

Navy permitted him to obtain two horsepower kilowatts engines in July On September 9, , the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of In , Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft.

The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek "young" help as Bell was at the age of In , Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.

Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association AEA , officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October at the suggestion of his wife Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate.

Curtiss , a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title "world's fastest man", having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere , and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge , an official observer from the U.

Federal government and one of the few people in the army who believed that aviation was the future; Frederick W.

The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing , framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.

One of the AEA's inventions, a practical wingtip form of the aileron , was to become a standard component on all aircraft.

Bell allowed it to continue with experiments. Selfridge had also become the first person killed in a powered heavier-than-air flight in a crash of the Wright Flyer at Fort Myer , Virginia , on September 17, Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart , embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines.

McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or made the first aircraft flight in Canada. Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States.

In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on November 13, the year of his election as a Member of the National Academy of Sciences , he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry.

The committee unequivocally extended the principle to humans. Organizations such as these advocated passing laws with success in some states that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race".

By the late s, about half the states in the U. Honors and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew.

Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities to the point that the requests almost became burdensome. These included statuary monuments to both him and the new form of communication his telephone created, including the Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in Brantford , Ontario, in A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Bell in North America and Europe, including the first telephone companies in the United States and Canada.

Among the major sites are:. These included the prestigious 'Volta Laboratory Association' , also known as the Volta Laboratory and as the 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in Georgetown, Washington, D.

The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year it improved Edison's phonograph by substituting wax for tinfoil as the recording medium and incising the recording rather than indenting it, key upgrades that Edison himself later adopted.

In partnership with Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell helped establish the publication Science during the early s.

In , Bell was elected as the second president of the National Geographic Society , serving until , and was primarily responsible for the extensive use of illustrations, including photography, in the magazine.

He was one of the founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in and served as its president from — The First Day of Issue ceremony was held on October 28 in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where Bell spent considerable time on research and working with the deaf.

The Bell stamp became very popular and sold out in little time. The stamp became, and remains to this day, the most valuable one of the series.

The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell's face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell's life and career: users of the telephone over the ages; an audio wave signal ; a diagram of a telephone receiver; geometric shapes from engineering structures; representations of sign language and the phonetic alphabet; the geese which helped him to understand flight; and the sheep which he studied to understand genetics.

That first flight was made by an airplane designed under Dr. Bell's tutelage, named the Silver Dart. In , Bell was also named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history after having been listed in the National Library of Scotland 's 'Scottish Science Hall of Fame'.

Alexander Graham Bell, who could not complete the university program of his youth, received at least a dozen honorary degrees from academic institutions, including eight honorary LL.

Bell died of complications arising from diabetes on August 2, , at his private estate in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, at age Bell, saying: []. My colleagues in the Government join with me in expressing to you our sense of the world's loss in the death of your distinguished husband.

It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history.

On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy. Bell's coffin was constructed of Beinn Bhreagh pine by his laboratory staff, lined with the same red silk fabric used in his tetrahedral kite experiments.

To help celebrate his life, his wife asked guests not to wear black the traditional funeral color while attending his service, during which soloist Jean MacDonald sang a verse of Robert Louis Stevenson 's "Requiem": [].

Upon the conclusion of Bell's funeral, "every phone on the continent of North America was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance".

Alexander Graham Bell was buried atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain, on his estate where he had resided increasingly for the last 35 years of his life, overlooking Bras d'Or Lake.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scientist and inventor known for his work on the telephone. Edinburgh , Scotland.

Beinn Bhreagh , Nova Scotia , Canada. University of Edinburgh University College London. Mabel Hubbard. Gardiner G. Hubbard father-in-law David C.

Bell uncle Gilbert H. Re-identified in , Bell made this wax-disc recording of his voice in Main article: Invention of the telephone.

Main article: Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy. Further information: The Telephone Cases. Further information: Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia.

Main article: Photophone. Play media. Main article: HD See also: Bell Telephone Memorial. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it.

Bell, Alexander Graham October Bibcode : AmJS Also published as: Bell, Alexander Graham September 23, Bibcode : Natur.. Bell, Alexander Graham Washington, D.

Archived from the original PDF on October 29, Retrieved January 2, Bell, Alexander Graham February The National Geographic Magazine.

National Geographic Society. To the end of his days, when discussing himself, Bell would always add with pride "I am a teacher of the deaf".

When he moved to Canada in , Canadian and British citizenship were functionally identical, with Canadian citizenship only becoming a formal classification in He applied for American citizenship after , gained it in , and referred to himself as an American citizen from that point on.

Quote from Bell speaking to his wife: "you are a citizen because you can't help it — you were born one, but I chose to be one.

On October 24, , in Brantford, Ontario, the Governor General spoke at the unveiling of the Bell Telephone Memorial to an audience numbering in the thousands, saying: "Dr.

Bell is to be congratulated upon being able to receive the recognition of his fellow citizens and fellow countrymen". Bell's dislike of the telephone.

Of course, he never had one in his study. That was where he went when he wanted to be alone with his thoughts and his work. The telephone, of course, means intrusion by the outside world.

And the little difficulties and delays often attending the establishment of conversation But all really important business over the telephone he transacted himself.

There are few private houses more completely equipped with telephones than ours Bell was more particular about than our telephone service We never could have come here [to Beinn Bhreagh] in the first place or continued here, but for the telephone which kept us in close touch with doctors and neighbors and the regular telegraph office Bell did like to say in fun, "Why did I ever invent the Telephone," but no one had a higher appreciation of its indispensableness or used it more freely when need was—either personally or by deputy —and he was really tremendously proud of it and all it was accomplishing.

It received its historical designation from the Government of Canada on June 1, Mabel's exact age when she became deaf would later play a part in the debate on the effectiveness of manual versus oral education for deaf children , as children who are older at the onset of deafness retain greater vocalization skills and are thus more successful in oral education programs.

Some of the debate centred on whether Mabel had to relearn oral speech from scratch, or whether she never lost it. It was invented in Brantford at Tutela Heights in the summer of Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand.

Bell was so ecstatic that he wanted to jointly name his new invention and his new daughter Photophone Greek: " light—sound " , [] [] Bell wrote: "Only think!

Mabel's baby screamed inarticulately but mine spoke with distinct enunciation from the first. Bell quickly disassembled it and effected a repair, to the owner's amazement.

When asked how he was able to do so Bell only needed to introduce himself. Bell also chose maroon-colored silk as it would show up clearly against the light-colored sky in his photographic studies.

Views of an Expert. Hammondsport , New York, March 12, Boulton and was also created independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie and several others.

Attending the formal ceremony were Bell's daughter, Mrs. To each side of the portico facing the monument are the engraved inscriptions "In Grateful Recognition of the Inventor of the Telephone".

Its dedication was broadcast live nationally by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. His wife, Mabel, daughter Daisy, and son-in-law David Fairchild had gathered around him.

His last view was of the moon rising above the mountain he loved". Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing.

IEEE Spectrum. April 30, Retrieved May 10, Bell Homestead National Historic Site. Retrieved September 27, Douglas Archived from the original PDF on April 19, Retrieved May 4, Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude.

Toronto, Ontario: Kids Can Press. Bell's Appreciation of the Telephone Service". Bell Telephone Quarterly. Retrieved September 18, Retrieved January 9, Retrieved January 18, Though he wasn't one of the original 33 founders, Bell had a major influence on the Society.

National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on April 3, Retrieved July 12, Roy Alexander Graham Bell.

Retrieved: July 28, Bell Dead. Father of Prof. Bell Developed Sign Language for Mutes". The New York Times.

August 8, The Franklin Institute. January 14, Retrieved February 24, Calgary, Alberta: Altitude Publishing. Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream Publishing.

Toronto, Ontario: Grolier. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV — online ed. University of Toronto Press. Retrieved March 6, Boston, Massachusetts: Grosset and Dunlap.

Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone. New York: HarperCollins. Canadian Register of Historic Places.

Retrieved September 17, Alexander Graham Bell at Baddeck. Baddeck, Nova Scotia: Christopher King. February 10, Recording Technology History.

Audio Engineering Society. Retrieved September 19, The Handbook of Social Justice in Education. London: Routledge. Mabel Bell: Alexander's Silent Partner.

Toronto, Ontario: Methuen. Toronto, Ontario: McClelland and Stewart. Pioneers of Science. July 25, Retrieved October 14, Retrieved on September 20, Archived from the original on December 23, Edward Boston University.

Retrieved March 28, IAP Quotegrab. August 2, Wilbur "confesses " ". The Washington Post. May 22, Telecommunications Canada. Retrieved January 14, Parks Canada.

New York: Popular Mechanics. August March 7, American Heritage. Archived from the original on March 11, Mississauga, Ontario: Copp Clark Pitman.

National Archives UK. Island Echo. Queen Victoria liked the telephone so much she wanted to buy it. The Telegraph. January 13, Library of Congress.

The instruments at present in Osborne are merely those supplied for ordinary commercial purposes, and it will afford me much pleasure to be permitted to offer to the Queen a set of Telephones to be made expressly for her Majesty's use.

Scientists who Made History. New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn. The Library of Congress. Retrieved March 7, January 26, Retrieved July 21, Australasian Telephone Collecting Society.

Moorebank, NSW, Australia. Retrieved April 22, Markham, Ontario: Pembroke. May 10, Retrieved July 28, American Bell Telephone Co.

Jusrtia US Supreme Court. November 12, An important acknowledgment for Antonio Meucci". The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, September 5, Archived from the original on July 17, Italian Historical Society of America.

Archived from the original on October 15, Retrieved December 29, Alexander Graham Bell and the Telephone.

Scientific American. Science Discoveries. Bibcode : SciAm. Bell Dies. Inspired Telephone. January 4, Gilbert H. Grosvenor Dies".

Canadian Press. February 5, Gilbert Grosvenor Dead". December 27, New York: Harry N. September 25, Sterling Biographies.

New York: Sterling Publishing. Historic Baddeck. Images of our Past. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing. Evening Tribune. San Diego, California.

Archived from the original on February 19, Retrieved November 26, Amateur Radio : 12— Archived from the original on August 2, February 10—26, Fiber Optics Weekly Update : 11 of 6— The Canadian Encyclopedia online ed.

Historica Canada. The Fiber Optic Backbone Report. University of North Texas. Archived from the original on September 25, January—February American Scientist.

Calls to parties beyond the local exchange are carried over trunk lines which establish connections between exchanges. In modern telephone networks, fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections.

Satellite technology may be used for communication over very long distances. In most landline telephones, the transmitter and receiver microphone and speaker are located in the handset, although in a speakerphone these components may be located in the base or in a separate enclosure.

Powered by the line, the microphone A2 produces a modulated electric current which varies its frequency and amplitude in response to the sound waves arriving at its diaphragm.

The resulting current is transmitted along the telephone line to the local exchange then on to the other phone via the local exchange or via a larger network , where it passes through the coil of the receiver A3.

The varying current in the coil produces a corresponding movement of the receiver's diaphragm, reproducing the original sound waves present at the transmitter.

Along with the microphone and speaker, additional circuitry is incorporated to prevent the incoming speaker signal and the outgoing microphone signal from interfering with each other.

This is accomplished through a hybrid coil A3. The incoming audio signal passes through a resistor A8 and the primary winding of the coil A3 which passes it to the speaker A1.

Since the current path A8 — A3 has a far lower impedance than the microphone A2 , virtually all of the incoming signal passes through it and bypasses the microphone.

At the same time the DC voltage across the line causes a DC current which is split between the resistor-coil A8-A3 branch and the microphone-coil A2-A3 branch.

The DC current through the resistor-coil branch has no effect on the incoming audio signal. But the DC current passing through the microphone is turned into AC in response to voice sounds which then passes through only the upper branch of the coil's A3 primary winding, which has far fewer turns than the lower primary winding.

This causes a small portion of the microphone output to be fed back to the speaker, while the rest of the AC goes out through the phone line.

A lineman's handset is a telephone designed for testing the telephone network, and may be attached directly to aerial lines and other infrastructure components.

Before the development of the electric telephone, the term "telephone" was applied to other inventions, and not all early researchers of the electrical device called it "telephone".

Perhaps the earliest use of the word for a communications system was the telephon created by Gottfried Huth in Huth proposed an alternative to the optical telegraph of Claude Chappe in which the operators in the signalling towers would shout to each other by means of what he called "speaking tubes", but would now be called giant megaphones.

This instrument used four air horns to communicate with vessels in foggy weather. Johann Philipp Reis used the term in reference to his invention, commonly known as the Reis telephone , in c.

His device appears to be the first device based on conversion of sound into electrical impulses. The term telephone was adopted into the vocabulary of many languages.

Credit for the invention of the electric telephone is frequently disputed. As with other influential inventions such as radio , television , the light bulb , and the computer , several inventors pioneered experimental work on voice transmission over a wire and improved on each other's ideas.

New controversies over the issue still arise from time to time. This method used vibrations and circuits to send electrical pulses, but was missing key features.

Bell found that this method produced a sound through intermittent currents, but in order for the telephone to work a fluctuating current reproduced sounds the best.

The fluctuating currents became the basis for the working telephone, creating Bell's patent. In the United Kingdom the blower is used as a slang term for a telephone.

The term came from navy slang for a speaking tube. Early telephones were technically diverse. Some used a water microphone , some had a metal diaphragm that induced current in an electromagnet wound around a permanent magnet, and some were dynamic — their diaphragm vibrated a coil of wire in the field of a permanent magnet or the coil vibrated the diaphragm.

The sound-powered dynamic variants survived in small numbers through the 20th century in military and maritime applications, where its ability to create its own electrical power was crucial.

The Edison patents kept the Bell monopoly viable into the 20th century, by which time the network was more important than the instrument.

Early telephones were locally powered, using either a dynamic transmitter or by the powering of a transmitter with a local battery.

One of the jobs of outside plant personnel was to visit each telephone periodically to inspect the battery. During the 20th century, telephones powered from the telephone exchange over the same wires that carried the voice signals became common.

Early telephones used a single wire for the subscriber's line, with ground return used to complete the circuit as used in telegraphs.

The earliest dynamic telephones also had only one port opening for sound, with the user alternately listening and speaking or rather, shouting into the same hole.

Sometimes the instruments were operated in pairs at each end, making conversation more convenient but also more expensive. At first, the benefits of a telephone exchange were not exploited.

Instead telephones were leased in pairs to a subscriber , who had to arrange for a telegraph contractor to construct a line between them, for example between a home and a shop.

Users who wanted the ability to speak to several different locations would need to obtain and set up three or four pairs of telephones.

Western Union , already using telegraph exchanges, quickly extended the principle to its telephones in New York City and San Francisco , and Bell was not slow in appreciating the potential.

Signalling began in an appropriately primitive manner. The user alerted the other end, or the exchange operator , by whistling into the transmitter.

Exchange operation soon resulted in telephones being equipped with a bell in a ringer box , first operated over a second wire, and later over the same wire, but with a condenser capacitor in series with the bell coil to allow the AC ringer signal through while still blocking DC keeping the phone " on hook ".

Telephones connected to the earliest Strowger switch automatic exchanges had seven wires, one for the knife switch , one for each telegraph key , one for the bell, one for the push-button and two for speaking.

Large wall telephones in the early 20th century usually incorporated the bell, and separate bell boxes for desk phones dwindled away in the middle of the century.

Rural and other telephones that were not on a common battery exchange had a magneto hand-cranked generator to produce a high voltage alternating signal to ring the bells of other telephones on the line and to alert the operator.

Some local farming communities that were not connected to the main networks set up barbed wire telephone lines that exploited the existing system of field fences to transmit the signal.

In the s a new smaller style of telephone was introduced, packaged in three parts. The transmitter stood on a stand, known as a " candlestick " for its shape.

When not in use, the receiver hung on a hook with a switch in it, known as a "switchhook". Previous telephones required the user to operate a separate switch to connect either the voice or the bell.

With the new kind, the user was less likely to leave the phone "off the hook". In phones connected to magneto exchanges, the bell, induction coil, battery and magneto were in a separate bell box or " ringer box ".

Cradle designs were also used at this time, having a handle with the receiver and transmitter attached, now called a handset , separate from the cradle base that housed the magneto crank and other parts.

They were larger than the "candlestick" and more popular. Disadvantages of single-wire operation such as crosstalk and hum from nearby AC power wires had already led to the use of twisted pairs and, for long-distance telephones, four-wire circuits.

Users at the beginning of the 20th century did not place long-distance calls from their own telephones but made an appointment to use a special soundproofed long-distance telephone booth furnished with the latest technology.

What turned out to be the most popular and longest-lasting physical style of telephone was introduced in the early 20th century, including Bell's type desk set.

A carbon granule transmitter and electromagnetic receiver were united in a single molded plastic handle, which when not in use sat in a cradle in the base unit.

The circuit diagram of the model shows the direct connection of the transmitter to the line, while the receiver was induction coupled.

In local battery configurations, when the local loop was too long to provide sufficient current from the exchange, the transmitter was powered by a local battery and inductively coupled, while the receiver was included in the local loop.

The dial switch in the base interrupted the line current by repeatedly but very briefly disconnecting the line 1 to 10 times for each digit, and the hook switch in the center of the circuit diagram disconnected the line and the transmitter battery while the handset was on the cradle.

In the s, telephone sets were developed that combined the bell and induction coil with the desk set, obviating a separate ringer box.

The rotary dial becoming commonplace in the s in many areas enabled customer-dialed service, but some magneto systems remained even into the s.

After World War II, the telephone networks saw rapid expansion and more efficient telephone sets, such as the model telephone in the United States, were developed that permitted larger local networks centered around central offices.

Ericsson DBH ca. Modern sound-powered emergency telephone. One type of mobile phone , called a cell phone.

The invention of the transistor in dramatically changed the technology used in telephone systems and in the long-distance transmission networks, over the next several decades.

Along with the development of stored program control for electronic switching systems , and new transmission technologies, such as pulse-code modulation PCM , telephony gradually evolved towards digital telephony , which improved the capacity, quality, and cost of the network.

The development of digital data communications methods made it possible to digitize voice and transmit it as real-time data across computer networks and the Internet , giving rise to the field of Internet Protocol IP telephony, also known as voice over Internet Protocol VoIP , a term that reflects the methodology memorably.

VoIP has proven to be a disruptive technology that is rapidly replacing traditional telephone network infrastructure. A January Newsweek article suggested that Internet telephony may be "the next big thing.

IP telephony uses high-bandwidth Internet connections and specialized customer premises equipment to transmit telephone calls via the Internet, or any modern private data network.

The customer equipment may be an analog telephone adapter ATA which translates the signals of a conventional analog telephone to packet-switched IP messages.

IP Phones have these function combined in standalone device, and computer softphone applications use microphone and headset devices of a personal computer.

While traditional analog telephones are typically powered from the central office through the telephone line, digital telephones require a local power supply.

Internet-based digital service also requires special provisions to provide the service location to the emergency services when an emergency telephone number is called.

This included 1. The Unicode system provides various code points for graphic symbols used in designating telephone devices, services, or information, for print, signage , and other media.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Phone. For other uses, see Telephone disambiguation. For other uses, see Phone disambiguation.

For the handheld personal computer, see Smartphone. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Alexander Graham Bell haftet damit der Ruf an, die Entwicklung der Gemeinschaft der gehörlosen Menschen und der Gebärdensprache massiv Scratch 2 zu haben mit Auswirkungen, die noch heute in vielen Ländern spürbar sind. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Einige erwirbt Alexander Graham Telefon Bell. Dann aber verunglückt er, wird vorübergehend arbeitsunfähig. Es gibt viele verschiedene Ähnlichkeiten — aber meine Idee liegt allen zugrunde. Schlimmer noch war für ihn das, was danach geschah. Der Nachbau einer Ohrmuschel regte ihn zur Erfindung des Telefons an: "Durch meinen Physikunterricht dazu veranlasst, griff ich im Jahre eine schon früher begonnene Arbeit über die Gehörwerkzeuge wieder auf und hatte bald die Freude, Beste Spielothek in Langenprozelten finden Mühen durch Erfolg belohnt zu sehen, indem es mir gelang, einen Apparat zu erfinden, durch welchen es möglich wird, die Funktionen der Gehörwerkzeuge Amazon Bankeinzug Funktioniert Nicht und anschaulich zu machen; mit welchem man aber auch Töne aller Art durch den galvanischen Strom in beliebiger Entfernung reproducieren kann. Microsoft hat "Interesse" Spielsucht Hilfe Duisburg chinesischer Videoplattform Tiktok. Lebensjahr eine Schule in London. Wandtelefon mit Dosenfernhörer.

Telefon Bell Video

Alexander Graham Bell's Telephone Prototype - The Genius Of Invention - Earth Lab

Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

In , he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries. By , a new summer retreat was contemplated.

He was an enthusiastic boater, and Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d'Or Lake , ordering additional vessels from the H.

In his final, and some of his most productive years, Bell split his residency between Washington, D. Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened.

Both Mabel and Bell became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own". Mabel and Bell mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.

Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied.

These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone , one for the phonograph , five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes", and two for selenium cells.

Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.

Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf.

During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound.

Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype. They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder , the hard disc and floppy disc drive, and other magnetic media.

Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution.

Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere.

In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses.

Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a photophone , which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of light.

On June 21, , Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School in Washington, D.

Bell believed the photophone's principles were his life's "greatest achievement", telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone".

Bell is also credited with developing one of the early versions of a metal detector through the use of an induction balance, after the shooting of U.

President James A. Garfield in According to some accounts, the metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find Guiteau 's bullet, partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.

Bell's own detailed account, presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in , differs in several particulars from most of the many and varied versions now in circulation, by concluding that extraneous metal was not to blame for failure to locate the bullet.

Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell "proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next morning It was then recollected that underneath the horse-hair mattress on which the President lay was another mattress composed of steel wires.

Upon obtaining a duplicate, the mattress was found to consist of a sort of net of woven steel wires, with large meshes. The extent of the [area that produced a response from the detector] having been so small, as compared with the area of the bed, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the steel mattress had produced no detrimental effect.

Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement.

Based on information gained from that article, he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. Bell and assistant Frederick W.

Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.

During his world tour of —11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore.

Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag Scottish Gaelic for little devil , the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.

Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD Bell's report to the U. Navy permitted him to obtain two horsepower kilowatts engines in July On September 9, , the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of In , Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft.

The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek "young" help as Bell was at the age of In , Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.

Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association AEA , officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October at the suggestion of his wife Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate.

Curtiss , a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title "world's fastest man", having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere , and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge , an official observer from the U.

Federal government and one of the few people in the army who believed that aviation was the future; Frederick W. The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders.

Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing , framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.

One of the AEA's inventions, a practical wingtip form of the aileron , was to become a standard component on all aircraft.

Bell allowed it to continue with experiments. Selfridge had also become the first person killed in a powered heavier-than-air flight in a crash of the Wright Flyer at Fort Myer , Virginia , on September 17, Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart , embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines.

McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or made the first aircraft flight in Canada. Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States.

In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on November 13, the year of his election as a Member of the National Academy of Sciences , he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry.

The committee unequivocally extended the principle to humans. Organizations such as these advocated passing laws with success in some states that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race".

By the late s, about half the states in the U. Honors and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew.

Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities to the point that the requests almost became burdensome.

These included statuary monuments to both him and the new form of communication his telephone created, including the Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in Brantford , Ontario, in A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Bell in North America and Europe, including the first telephone companies in the United States and Canada.

Among the major sites are:. These included the prestigious 'Volta Laboratory Association' , also known as the Volta Laboratory and as the 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in Georgetown, Washington, D.

The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year it improved Edison's phonograph by substituting wax for tinfoil as the recording medium and incising the recording rather than indenting it, key upgrades that Edison himself later adopted.

In partnership with Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell helped establish the publication Science during the early s.

In , Bell was elected as the second president of the National Geographic Society , serving until , and was primarily responsible for the extensive use of illustrations, including photography, in the magazine.

He was one of the founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in and served as its president from — The First Day of Issue ceremony was held on October 28 in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where Bell spent considerable time on research and working with the deaf.

The Bell stamp became very popular and sold out in little time. The stamp became, and remains to this day, the most valuable one of the series. The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell's face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell's life and career: users of the telephone over the ages; an audio wave signal ; a diagram of a telephone receiver; geometric shapes from engineering structures; representations of sign language and the phonetic alphabet; the geese which helped him to understand flight; and the sheep which he studied to understand genetics.

That first flight was made by an airplane designed under Dr. Bell's tutelage, named the Silver Dart.

In , Bell was also named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history after having been listed in the National Library of Scotland 's 'Scottish Science Hall of Fame'.

Alexander Graham Bell, who could not complete the university program of his youth, received at least a dozen honorary degrees from academic institutions, including eight honorary LL.

Bell died of complications arising from diabetes on August 2, , at his private estate in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, at age Bell, saying: []. My colleagues in the Government join with me in expressing to you our sense of the world's loss in the death of your distinguished husband.

It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history.

On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy.

Bell's coffin was constructed of Beinn Bhreagh pine by his laboratory staff, lined with the same red silk fabric used in his tetrahedral kite experiments.

To help celebrate his life, his wife asked guests not to wear black the traditional funeral color while attending his service, during which soloist Jean MacDonald sang a verse of Robert Louis Stevenson 's "Requiem": [].

Upon the conclusion of Bell's funeral, "every phone on the continent of North America was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance".

Alexander Graham Bell was buried atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain, on his estate where he had resided increasingly for the last 35 years of his life, overlooking Bras d'Or Lake.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scientist and inventor known for his work on the telephone. Edinburgh , Scotland. Beinn Bhreagh , Nova Scotia , Canada.

University of Edinburgh University College London. Mabel Hubbard. Gardiner G. Hubbard father-in-law David C. Bell uncle Gilbert H.

Re-identified in , Bell made this wax-disc recording of his voice in Main article: Invention of the telephone.

Main article: Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy. Further information: The Telephone Cases.

Further information: Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia. Main article: Photophone. Play media. Main article: HD See also: Bell Telephone Memorial. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it.

Bell, Alexander Graham October Bibcode : AmJS Also published as: Bell, Alexander Graham September 23, Bibcode : Natur..

Bell, Alexander Graham Washington, D. Archived from the original PDF on October 29, Retrieved January 2, Bell, Alexander Graham February The National Geographic Magazine.

National Geographic Society. To the end of his days, when discussing himself, Bell would always add with pride "I am a teacher of the deaf".

When he moved to Canada in , Canadian and British citizenship were functionally identical, with Canadian citizenship only becoming a formal classification in He applied for American citizenship after , gained it in , and referred to himself as an American citizen from that point on.

Quote from Bell speaking to his wife: "you are a citizen because you can't help it — you were born one, but I chose to be one. On October 24, , in Brantford, Ontario, the Governor General spoke at the unveiling of the Bell Telephone Memorial to an audience numbering in the thousands, saying: "Dr.

Bell is to be congratulated upon being able to receive the recognition of his fellow citizens and fellow countrymen". Bell's dislike of the telephone.

Of course, he never had one in his study. That was where he went when he wanted to be alone with his thoughts and his work. The telephone, of course, means intrusion by the outside world.

And the little difficulties and delays often attending the establishment of conversation But all really important business over the telephone he transacted himself.

There are few private houses more completely equipped with telephones than ours Bell was more particular about than our telephone service We never could have come here [to Beinn Bhreagh] in the first place or continued here, but for the telephone which kept us in close touch with doctors and neighbors and the regular telegraph office Bell did like to say in fun, "Why did I ever invent the Telephone," but no one had a higher appreciation of its indispensableness or used it more freely when need was—either personally or by deputy —and he was really tremendously proud of it and all it was accomplishing.

It received its historical designation from the Government of Canada on June 1, Mabel's exact age when she became deaf would later play a part in the debate on the effectiveness of manual versus oral education for deaf children , as children who are older at the onset of deafness retain greater vocalization skills and are thus more successful in oral education programs.

Some of the debate centred on whether Mabel had to relearn oral speech from scratch, or whether she never lost it.

It was invented in Brantford at Tutela Heights in the summer of Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand.

Bell was so ecstatic that he wanted to jointly name his new invention and his new daughter Photophone Greek: " light—sound " , [] [] Bell wrote: "Only think!

Mabel's baby screamed inarticulately but mine spoke with distinct enunciation from the first. Bell quickly disassembled it and effected a repair, to the owner's amazement.

When asked how he was able to do so Bell only needed to introduce himself. Bell also chose maroon-colored silk as it would show up clearly against the light-colored sky in his photographic studies.

Views of an Expert. Hammondsport , New York, March 12, Boulton and was also created independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie and several others.

Attending the formal ceremony were Bell's daughter, Mrs. To each side of the portico facing the monument are the engraved inscriptions "In Grateful Recognition of the Inventor of the Telephone".

Its dedication was broadcast live nationally by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. His wife, Mabel, daughter Daisy, and son-in-law David Fairchild had gathered around him.

His last view was of the moon rising above the mountain he loved". Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing. IEEE Spectrum.

April 30, Retrieved May 10, Bell Homestead National Historic Site. Retrieved September 27, Douglas Archived from the original PDF on April 19, Retrieved May 4, Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude.

Toronto, Ontario: Kids Can Press. Bell's Appreciation of the Telephone Service". Bell Telephone Quarterly. Retrieved September 18, Retrieved January 9, Retrieved January 18, Though he wasn't one of the original 33 founders, Bell had a major influence on the Society.

National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on April 3, Retrieved July 12, Roy Alexander Graham Bell. Retrieved: July 28, Bell Dead.

Father of Prof. Bell Developed Sign Language for Mutes". The New York Times. August 8, The Franklin Institute.

January 14, Retrieved February 24, Calgary, Alberta: Altitude Publishing. Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream Publishing.

Toronto, Ontario: Grolier. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV — online ed. University of Toronto Press. Retrieved March 6, Boston, Massachusetts: Grosset and Dunlap.

Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone. New York: HarperCollins. Canadian Register of Historic Places.

Retrieved September 17, Alexander Graham Bell at Baddeck. Baddeck, Nova Scotia: Christopher King. February 10, Recording Technology History.

Audio Engineering Society. Retrieved September 19, The Handbook of Social Justice in Education. London: Routledge.

Mabel Bell: Alexander's Silent Partner. Toronto, Ontario: Methuen. Toronto, Ontario: McClelland and Stewart.

Pioneers of Science. July 25, Retrieved October 14, Retrieved on September 20, Archived from the original on December 23, Edward Boston University.

Retrieved March 28, IAP Quotegrab. August 2, Wilbur "confesses " ". The Washington Post. May 22, Telecommunications Canada. Retrieved January 14, Parks Canada.

New York: Popular Mechanics. August March 7, American Heritage. Archived from the original on March 11, Mississauga, Ontario: Copp Clark Pitman. National Archives UK.

Island Echo. Queen Victoria liked the telephone so much she wanted to buy it. The Telegraph. January 13, Library of Congress.

The instruments at present in Osborne are merely those supplied for ordinary commercial purposes, and it will afford me much pleasure to be permitted to offer to the Queen a set of Telephones to be made expressly for her Majesty's use.

Scientists who Made History. New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn. The Library of Congress. Retrieved March 7, January 26, Retrieved July 21, Australasian Telephone Collecting Society.

Moorebank, NSW, Australia. Retrieved April 22, Markham, Ontario: Pembroke. May 10, Retrieved July 28, American Bell Telephone Co. Jusrtia US Supreme Court.

November 12, An important acknowledgment for Antonio Meucci". The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, September 5, Archived from the original on July 17, Italian Historical Society of America.

Archived from the original on October 15, Retrieved December 29, Alexander Graham Bell and the Telephone. Scientific American.

Science Discoveries. Bibcode : SciAm. Bell Dies. Inspired Telephone. January 4, Gilbert H. Grosvenor Dies". Canadian Press. February 5, Gilbert Grosvenor Dead".

December 27, New York: Harry N. September 25, Sterling Biographies. New York: Sterling Publishing. Historic Baddeck.

Images of our Past. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing. Evening Tribune. San Diego, California. Archived from the original on February 19, Retrieved November 26, Amateur Radio : 12— The ringer, or beeper, light or other device A7 , alerts the user to incoming calls.

The hookswitch signals to the central office that the user has picked up the handset to either answer a call or initiate a call.

A dial, if present, is used by the subscriber to transmit a telephone number to the central office when initiating a call.

Until the s dials used almost exclusively the rotary technology, which was replaced by dual-tone multi-frequency signaling DTMF with pushbutton telephones A4.

A major expense of wire-line telephone service is the outside wire plant. Telephones transmit both the incoming and outgoing speech signals on a single pair of wires.

A twisted pair line rejects electromagnetic interference EMI and crosstalk better than a single wire or an untwisted pair. The strong outgoing speech signal from the microphone transmitter does not overpower the weaker incoming speaker receiver signal with sidetone because a hybrid coil A3 and other components compensate the imbalance.

The junction box B arrests lightning B2 and adjusts the line's resistance B1 to maximize the signal power for the line length.

Telephones have similar adjustments for inside line lengths A8. The line voltages are negative compared to earth, to reduce galvanic corrosion.

Negative voltage attracts positive metal ions toward the wires. The landline telephone contains a switchhook A4 and an alerting device, usually a ringer A7 , that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is " on hook " i.

The off-hook components include a transmitter microphone, A2 , a receiver speaker, A1 , and other circuits for dialing, filtering A3 , and amplification.

The place a telephone call, the calling party picks up the telephone's handset, thereby operating a lever which closes the hook switch A4. This powers the telephone by connecting the transmission hybrid transformer, as well as the transmitter microphone and receiver speaker to the line.

In this off-hook state, the telephone circuitry has a low resistance of typically than ohms , which causes the flow of direct current DC in the line C from the telephone exchange.

The exchange detects this current, attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line, and sends dial tone to indicate its readiness. On a modern push-button telephone , the caller then presses the number keys to send the telephone number of the destination, the called party.

The keys control a tone generator circuit not shown that sends DTMF tones to the exchange. A rotary-dial telephone uses pulse dialing , sending electrical pulses, that the exchange counts to decode each digit of the telephone number.

If the called party's line is available, the terminating exchange applies an intermittent alternating current AC ringing signal of 40 to 90 volts to alert the called party of the incoming call.

If the called party's line is in use, however, the exchange returns a busy signal to the calling party. If the called party's line is in use but subscribes to call waiting service, the exchange sends an intermittent audible tone to the called party to indicate another call.

The electromechanical ringer of a telephone A7 is connected to the line through a capacitor A6 , which blocks direct current and passes the alternating current of the ringing power.

The telephone draws no current when it is on hook, while a DC voltage is continually applied to the line.

Exchange circuitry D2 can send an alternating current down the line to activate the ringer and announce an incoming call. In manual service exchange areas, before dial service was installed, telephones had hand-cranked magneto generators to generate a ringing voltage back to the exchange or any other telephone on the same line.

When a landline telephone is inactive on hook , the circuitry at the telephone exchange detects the absence of direct current to indicate that the line is not in use.

When the called party picks up the handset, they actuate a double-circuit switchhook not shown which may simultaneously disconnects the alerting device and connects the audio circuitry to the line.

This, in turn, draws direct current through the line, confirming that the called phone is now active. The exchange circuitry turns off the ring signal, and both telephones are now active and connected through the exchange.

The parties may now converse as long as both phones remain off hook. When a party hangs up, placing the handset back on the cradle or hook, direct current ceases in that line, signaling the exchange to disconnect the call.

Calls to parties beyond the local exchange are carried over trunk lines which establish connections between exchanges. In modern telephone networks, fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections.

Satellite technology may be used for communication over very long distances. In most landline telephones, the transmitter and receiver microphone and speaker are located in the handset, although in a speakerphone these components may be located in the base or in a separate enclosure.

Powered by the line, the microphone A2 produces a modulated electric current which varies its frequency and amplitude in response to the sound waves arriving at its diaphragm.

The resulting current is transmitted along the telephone line to the local exchange then on to the other phone via the local exchange or via a larger network , where it passes through the coil of the receiver A3.

The varying current in the coil produces a corresponding movement of the receiver's diaphragm, reproducing the original sound waves present at the transmitter.

Along with the microphone and speaker, additional circuitry is incorporated to prevent the incoming speaker signal and the outgoing microphone signal from interfering with each other.

This is accomplished through a hybrid coil A3. The incoming audio signal passes through a resistor A8 and the primary winding of the coil A3 which passes it to the speaker A1.

Since the current path A8 — A3 has a far lower impedance than the microphone A2 , virtually all of the incoming signal passes through it and bypasses the microphone.

At the same time the DC voltage across the line causes a DC current which is split between the resistor-coil A8-A3 branch and the microphone-coil A2-A3 branch.

The DC current through the resistor-coil branch has no effect on the incoming audio signal. But the DC current passing through the microphone is turned into AC in response to voice sounds which then passes through only the upper branch of the coil's A3 primary winding, which has far fewer turns than the lower primary winding.

This causes a small portion of the microphone output to be fed back to the speaker, while the rest of the AC goes out through the phone line.

A lineman's handset is a telephone designed for testing the telephone network, and may be attached directly to aerial lines and other infrastructure components.

Before the development of the electric telephone, the term "telephone" was applied to other inventions, and not all early researchers of the electrical device called it "telephone".

Perhaps the earliest use of the word for a communications system was the telephon created by Gottfried Huth in Huth proposed an alternative to the optical telegraph of Claude Chappe in which the operators in the signalling towers would shout to each other by means of what he called "speaking tubes", but would now be called giant megaphones.

This instrument used four air horns to communicate with vessels in foggy weather. Johann Philipp Reis used the term in reference to his invention, commonly known as the Reis telephone , in c.

His device appears to be the first device based on conversion of sound into electrical impulses. The term telephone was adopted into the vocabulary of many languages.

Credit for the invention of the electric telephone is frequently disputed. As with other influential inventions such as radio , television , the light bulb , and the computer , several inventors pioneered experimental work on voice transmission over a wire and improved on each other's ideas.

New controversies over the issue still arise from time to time. This method used vibrations and circuits to send electrical pulses, but was missing key features.

Bell found that this method produced a sound through intermittent currents, but in order for the telephone to work a fluctuating current reproduced sounds the best.

The fluctuating currents became the basis for the working telephone, creating Bell's patent. In the United Kingdom the blower is used as a slang term for a telephone.

The term came from navy slang for a speaking tube. Early telephones were technically diverse. Some used a water microphone , some had a metal diaphragm that induced current in an electromagnet wound around a permanent magnet, and some were dynamic — their diaphragm vibrated a coil of wire in the field of a permanent magnet or the coil vibrated the diaphragm.

The sound-powered dynamic variants survived in small numbers through the 20th century in military and maritime applications, where its ability to create its own electrical power was crucial.

The Edison patents kept the Bell monopoly viable into the 20th century, by which time the network was more important than the instrument.

Early telephones were locally powered, using either a dynamic transmitter or by the powering of a transmitter with a local battery.

One of the jobs of outside plant personnel was to visit each telephone periodically to inspect the battery. During the 20th century, telephones powered from the telephone exchange over the same wires that carried the voice signals became common.

Early telephones used a single wire for the subscriber's line, with ground return used to complete the circuit as used in telegraphs.

The earliest dynamic telephones also had only one port opening for sound, with the user alternately listening and speaking or rather, shouting into the same hole.

Sometimes the instruments were operated in pairs at each end, making conversation more convenient but also more expensive. At first, the benefits of a telephone exchange were not exploited.

Instead telephones were leased in pairs to a subscriber , who had to arrange for a telegraph contractor to construct a line between them, for example between a home and a shop.

Users who wanted the ability to speak to several different locations would need to obtain and set up three or four pairs of telephones.

Western Union , already using telegraph exchanges, quickly extended the principle to its telephones in New York City and San Francisco , and Bell was not slow in appreciating the potential.

Signalling began in an appropriately primitive manner. The user alerted the other end, or the exchange operator , by whistling into the transmitter.

Exchange operation soon resulted in telephones being equipped with a bell in a ringer box , first operated over a second wire, and later over the same wire, but with a condenser capacitor in series with the bell coil to allow the AC ringer signal through while still blocking DC keeping the phone " on hook ".

Telephones connected to the earliest Strowger switch automatic exchanges had seven wires, one for the knife switch , one for each telegraph key , one for the bell, one for the push-button and two for speaking.

Large wall telephones in the early 20th century usually incorporated the bell, and separate bell boxes for desk phones dwindled away in the middle of the century.

Rural and other telephones that were not on a common battery exchange had a magneto hand-cranked generator to produce a high voltage alternating signal to ring the bells of other telephones on the line and to alert the operator.

Some local farming communities that were not connected to the main networks set up barbed wire telephone lines that exploited the existing system of field fences to transmit the signal.

In the s a new smaller style of telephone was introduced, packaged in three parts. The transmitter stood on a stand, known as a " candlestick " for its shape.

When not in use, the receiver hung on a hook with a switch in it, known as a "switchhook". Previous telephones required the user to operate a separate switch to connect either the voice or the bell.

With the new kind, the user was less likely to leave the phone "off the hook".

Patent Office. During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with Wie Hat Bielefeld Gespielt hours spent in Telefon Bell discussion and study. Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property, [40] [N 7] conclude all of his brother's affairs Bell took over his last Rakoczyfest Bad KiГџingen, curing a pronounced lisp[41] and join his father and mother in setting out Beste Spielothek in Wolkersdorf finden the " New World ". Temple Run Online Spielen and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew. Retrieved July 30, Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype. Retrieved September 18, Upon the conclusion of Bell's funeral, "every phone on the continent of North Solo Mid was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance". These included statuary monuments to Beste Spielothek in Branders finden him and the new form of communication his telephone created, including the Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in BrantfordOntario, in His father encouraged Bell's interest in speech and, intook his sons to see a unique automaton developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Telefon Bell. It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history. In the s a new smaller style of telephone was introduced, packaged in three parts. Scottish agnostics Scottish businesspeople Scottish emigrants to BinГ¤re Optionen Broker Erfahrungen Scottish eugenicists Scottish inventors Scottish Unitarians Smithsonian Institution people Hall of Fame for Great Americans inductees George Washington University trustees Canadian activists Gardiner family Cosmos Club members 19th-century inventors Scottish emigrants to the United States John Fritz Medal recipients 20th-century American scientists 20th-century American inventors Canadian educational Spiele Space Traveller - Video Slots Online Scottish physicists 19th-century Canadian scientists 20th-century Scottish scientists 20th-century Canadian scientists Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame inductees. Chesney Robert A. Bell's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to identify any Kostenlose Spiele Zum Jetzt Spielen and its accompanying sound. Die drei unterzeichneten eine Vereinbarung, nach Beste Spielothek in Ober-Voggenhof finden Bell finanzielle Unterstützung erhielt im Gegenzug für spätere Beteiligung von Hubbard und Sanders an den Erträgen. Vielen Experten schien die bereits ausgereiftere Telegraphie als weit überlegen. Skizze des Reis-Telephons. Den Namen Philipp Reis kennt jedenfalls auch hierzulande kaum jemand. Besonders nachdem Bells Patent am 7. Solange er noch Probleme mit dem Prototyp hatte, wollte er das Patent vielleicht nur einreichen, wenn es unbedingt nötig gewesen wäre - also wenn die Gefahr bestand, dass ein Anderer ihm zuvorkäme. Für den wechselseitigen Telefon Bell besteht ein Fernsprechapparat aus einer Sende- und einer Empfangseinheit, der Sprechmuschel und dem Hörer. Februar sollen beide, beziehungsweise deren Anwälte, im gleichen Fernsehgelder FuГџball die Erfindung des Telefons angemeldet haben.

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